Diphthongs

Lessons 24 – 26 and Lessons 31 – 32

 

What: 

 

Diphthongs are special vowel sounds that are made from many different combinations of vowels and/or consonants.  There will be two approaches in teaching diphthongs. 

 

The first is the vowel pattern, such as “oo”.  Since there may be many different ending sounds associated with “oo”, the diphthong is presented as the vowel pattern.

 

Examples of words with the “diphthong vowel patterns” are:  cool; boot, snoop and moose.

 

The second is the “rime family”, such as “ute”.  Since there are only a few words associated with the one ending sound, they are presented as a “rime family”.

 

Examples of words with the “diphthong rime family patterns” are: “ute” – cute, mute, flute, “une” – June, tune, prune.

 

Why: 

 

Words with diphthong vowels make up about 10% of single syllable words.  Therefore, a significant focus should be placed on these words. 

 

When:

 

Words that have diphthong vowel sounds are presented in Lessons 24 – 26 and Lessons 31- 32. 

 

How:  

 

Repetition, repetition, repetition! 

 

My Breakfast Reading Program presents all of the diphthong vowels in five lessons.  Each lesson consists of one 60-second exercise and one 30-second exercise.  These exercises provide a high number of repetitions in a very short time frame.  Each lesson is repeated five days a week.

 


Statistical Analysis: 

 

Table 4: Pivot Table for Diphthong Analysis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Count of Printed Word

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vowel Sound Family

Vowel family

Total

% within Family

% of Grand Total

Example

Lesson

aw

al

22

31%

 

tall

 

 

au

13

19%

 

launch

 

 

aw

29

41%

 

paw

 

 

ou

6

9%

 

fought

 

aw Total

 

70

 

23%

 

26

oo long

oo

4

18%

 

roof

 

 

ou

4

18%

 

soup

 

 

u

14

64%

 

tube

 

oo long Total

 

22

 

7%

 

32

ow

ol

1

1%

 

doll

 

 

ou

55

68%

 

mouse

 

 

ow

25

31%

 

cow

 

ow Total

 

81

 

27%

 

25

oy

oi

15

71%

 

boy

 

 

oy

6

29%

 

oil

 

oy Total

 

21

 

7%

 

31

short oo

u

4

100%

 

sure

 

short oo Total

 

4

 

1%

 

NA

u 1 dot

oo

12

67%

 

book

 

 

ou

3

17%

 

could

 

 

u

3

17%

 

pull

 

u 1 dot Total

 

18

 

6%

 

31

u 2 dot

ew

10

11%

 

new

 

 

oo

58

65%

 

spoon

 

 

u

21

24%

 

flute

 

u 2 dot Total

 

89

 

29%

 

24

Grand Total

 

305

 

 

 

 

 

 

Analysis of Table 4 illustrates that there are seven diphthong sounds:  aw; oo long; ow; oy; short oo; u 1 dot; u 2 dot.

 

Analysis also illustrates that 79% of the diphthong sounds are made from three diphthong sounds: u 2 dot (29%), aw (23%) and ow (27%). 

 

 


Exercise Materials:  Layout and Instructions

 

Exercise #1:  Recognition of Diphthongs – Example of Lesson 24

 

Beginning Sound

 

Vowel Sound

 

Ending Sound

b   d
f    g
h   k

 

ew

 

b   d
f    g
h   k

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

oo

 

 

l 
m   n
p   r

 

 

l   ll
m   n
p   r

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

s    t
v   w
y   z

 

 

 

s    t
v   w
x   z

 

ue

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ch   sh
st    sw   

 

ude

 

ch   sh
st    pt
ss   mp

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

une

 

 

 sk   bl
fl    sl
  

 

 

mb   sk
ck   ft
nk   nt  

 

 

 

 

ute

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exercise #1:  This is a 60 second timed exercise.  During the first 30 seconds, the teacher randomly points to a diphthong vowel (ew) or diphthong rime family (une) and says the sound.  The student immediately says the sound.  Start out with a three second interval between sounds and quickly work up to a rate of one sound per second by the end of the 30 seconds.

 

During the second 30 seconds, the teacher randomly points to a diphthong vowel.  The student attempts to say the sound.  After a brief hesitation, the teacher says the sound, regardless if the student named, misnamed or couldn’t name the sound.  Start out with a three second interval between sounds and quickly work up to a rate of one word per second by the end of the 30 seconds. 

 

It is encouraged if the student and teacher can develop a rhythm that allows them to say the sounds in unison.

 

In addition, beginning and ending consonants, blends and diagraphs are available for review.  This would be optional review time, if desired. 

 

 

Exercise #2:  Find the Diphthong and Say the Vowel Sound

Circle the special vowels:   

 

Say the vowel sound

 

coo

loon

cool

scoop

true

dude

too

noon

crude

flue

 

Exercise #2:  This is a 30 second drill.  The student is to work left to right.  For each word, the student circles the diphthong or rime family and says the diphthong vowel sound.  For example, for the first word, the student circles the oo and says the “oo” sound.  An example of the rime family is “ude”.

 

 

Exercise #3a:  Sound Blending – Diphthong/Beginning

Say the vowel sound

Blend Sounds: #1 - forward

 

 

troop

clue

flue

moose

school

doom

hew

coop

mute

new

 

Exercise #3a:  This is a 30 second drill.  The student is to work left to right.  For each word, the student says the diphthong or rime family, says the beginning sound, blends the two sounds together, says the ending  sound, if any, and then blends the two sounds.  For example, for the first word, the student says the “oo” sound, says the “tr” sound, blends the two sounds to say “troo”, says “p”, and blends the two sounds “troo+ p”. 

 

Exercise #3a:  Sound Blending – Diphthong/Ending

Say the vowel sound

Blend Sounds: #2 - ending/forward

 

 

goo

croon

too

noon

coop

toot

boom

too

blue

hew

 

Exercise #3b:  This is a 30 second drill.  The student is to work left to right.  For each word, the student says the diphthong or rime family, says the ending sound, if any, blends the two sounds together, says the beginning sound and then blends the two sounds.  For example, for the second word, the student says the “oo” sound, says the “n” sound, blends the two sounds to say “oon”, says “cr”, says “oon” and blends the two sounds “cr + oon”.